Nun-na-a-in-ah Ve-vith-ha Hin-nen-nau Hin-nen-it-dah-need (1895)
Portions of the Book of Common Prayer in Arapaho

"Shortened Church Service in the Arapahoe Indian language. Translated from the Book of Common Prayer during the year 1895, by Fremont Arthur and the Rev. John Roberts, Missionary Clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church to the Arapahoe and Shoshone Indians on the Shoshone Indian Reservation, Wind River, Wyo. Fremont Arthur was Arapahoe Indian Catechist during this period, a pupil of Mr. Roberts, beginning in 1883. He died in 1901."


This translation into Arapaho of portions of the Book of Common Prayer was prepared by missionary-translator John Roberts (1883-1963) and Fremont Arthur (d. 1901).

The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming provides the following biography of Roberts:

John Roberts was an Episcopalian missionary who worked among the Arapaho and Shoshone people of the Wind River Reservation of Wyoming for sixty-nine years. He was born in 1853 at Rhuddlan, in North Wales. He was educated in Wales and later received an M.A. degree from Oxford University, England. He was ordained a deacon in Litchfield [sic] Cathedral in 1878.

In 1883, John Roberts was sent to the Shoshone Indian reservation in Wyoming to work among the Indians and organize missions among the white settlers in the adjacent territory. While there, he established St. Michael’s Mission for the Arapahos and the United States Government Indian Boarding Industrial School for the Shoshones and Arapahos. In 1889, he also established the Shoshone Indian Mission Boarding School. He translated Biblical texts and church-related material into the Arapaho and Shoshone languages with the assistance of Arapahos Fremont Arthur and Michael White Hawk and Charles Lajoe of the Shoshone.

William Muss-Arnolt discusses publications related to this translation in Chapter XLIX of The Book of Common Prayer among the Nations of the World (1914):

A Northern Arapaho, Fremont Arthur, deceased, compiled, some years ago, a little book of Questions and Answers, a sort of Catechism, in both English and Arapahoe. It contains from the Prayer Book: the Lord’s Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and the Creed, with the answer, following the Creed, in the Catechism. The American Bible Society published a translation of the Gospel according to Saint Luke. New York, 1903. The translation was made by the Rev. John Roberts, of the Shoshone Mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church to the Shoshone and Arapaho Indians, Wyoming.

The greater part of the Prayer Book has been translated by Roberts; with the assistance of the Rev. Sherman Coolidge, a full-blood Arapaho Indian; but it has not yet been printed.

This translation is not listed in David Griffiths’s Bibliography of the Book of Common Payer 1549-1999 (London: The British Library; New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2002). This text was digitized in 2011 by Richard Mammana from a copy of the original provided by Thomas Rae.


     Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah He-au as-sin-heet, Daun hin-nan wah-wuch-chu-a-nak nau nun-nau-chau-tha-ha ne nak hah-nau nun-nah-nin dith-thau-wad-daun-nin ne-ith-thet-jau vahs-ne-thet-jau ah-nau Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah hahd-ve-na-in vah-nahs-sau hau-guth-ah ved-deed ich-jev-va.
     Jahth-te da-hoo nu-hoo ith-thet-te ah-ned-deed-don-nau hah jah-nah-tha-daun-nin nu-hoo ahs-sin-heet hon-no-it daun he-thau-wad-daun-aut. “Nah-hai-jah hon-no-it daun hah tha ooch-thet-jah-nah nau had-din-ne-ith-thet-jah-hath-then-na.”
     Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah be-chaud-dau hin-nen-nid-da-need nah has-va-id nen-nees-sa-nith He-au daun he-thau-wad-dan-aut had je non thau-aud hau had-je-thau-je-neen na-id-deed.
     Jath-te-je ja-as-sin-heet Sant Paul.
     "Nu-hoo ith-thau-woo ne-he-it nau hon-no-it hin-nen-nid-da-need ha-on-on-id-de Christos Jesous de-nau-is-sad-de ve-dah-woo dat-ne-ne-yau-deet woch-dau-hu-hau."
     Jahth-te-je ja-as-sin-heet Sant John.
     "Ith hin-nan-it-dah wuch-dau-huk nau-hoo ne-dah-hai-e wah-nau nau-goo-hoo. He-sun-nau-nin nau naun-nud-daud-dah hah wuch-daud-de-nin."


     He-yau jev-vah-ne-ah-thah ne-ne-dah-ooin had ne-don-na-an.
     He-yau jev-vah-ne-ah-thah ne-ne-dah-ooin had ne-don-na-an.

     Ah He-yau jev-vah-ne-ah-thah nah-sa nahoo was-sau hah-tha-au.
     Ad-ve-na-an hah da-dau-ne-in.

     Ah He-yau jev-vah-ne-ah-thah nah-sa nahoo was-sau hah-tha-au.

     Christos jah-oon-nun-ne-ah.
     Christos jah-oon-nun-ne-ah.

     Vah-hah-dain jah-oon-nun-ne-ah.
     Vah-hah-dain jah-oon-nun-ne-ah.

The Lord's Prayer

     Hees jevv-ah hen-ne Sun-nau-neet Hen ne-se-eet va-den-au. Nuch-ha-jah hon-no-it ha-ith-thau-a hin-non-na. Ha-ith-et hon-no-it n-veed-ahoo has-sau hees-jev-vah Je-veen-na-ah nu-hoo de-seen-ne veeth-e-wah Jev-va gau-dau-va-na-dau-dees nun-daun as-je-gau-dau-va-na-woo-ne wah-ooch-ha dau-nau. Jeva-e-thah-a-ite-tha-ah ha-da was-sau na-e-thah-a-itc-tha-ah ha da eeth-et-tee. He-se-e va-he-e He-sun-nah-nin. Ne-vah-ha-ist-taut det-jah-ne-he. Hoi-ee.

The Apostles Creed

     Ne-thau-wad-dan-nau He-sun-nah-nin.
     Va-nau-dicht. Nees-tha-he ich-jev-va n've-dah-woo. Nau Jesous Christos ne-sa-neeth He-yau hen-ne the-na'-dau-nin. Hin-ne sun-naun Ved-den Nau-wah-thah-oo Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah. He in-aun is-sa-id-da'yaun Mar-ee ne-au'd-dah-it nau-gauch-chu d' nahjah-hit Pontius Pilate. N' net-cah nau n'jeen-nen-nahd. Ne-ah-wi's-sed had-dau be-he-yaun-ne. Nah-sees nah-ne-e jah-gau-id he-the de-net-cah. Nah ne-e-ja-e ji's-sad he-se-he hi-ya'-hin nau huth-tha the-ok-ut jav-vees Jev-vah-ne'-ah-thah va sun-nah Va-nau'-dicht. He-he the-he hah-de-jaut had-nau-choo-wit-deed he-na-deed nau ned-ja-at.
     Ne-thau-wad-dan-nau Ved-den Nau-wah-thah-oo Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah n' ved-den ne'chau-hah-dah-wah hoo-hah Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah.
     N'hat-je-goch-dah-va-nah-dau woch-daut. N'ha-jah-go-hai-nau gu-jaut da-he ved-dun-ni-yau. Nhu-nah-deed je-thau je-ne. Ith-ah-woo.

     Vah-hah-dicht nun-ne-thau-na-nah.
     Vah-hah-dicht nen-ne-thau-naud ha-ved-dah-thu.
     Hah vah-hah-dicht jah-oon-nun-ne-ah.
     Nau je-ve-na-ah he-net-deed je-thau-je-ne-he.

     Hah Jev-vah-ne'-ah-thah ne'-ste-he-yau-the-he hid-da he-don-au ith-thau-va.
     Nah jev-va id-den-au nun-nah-nin Ved-den Nau-wah-thah-oo he-he'-the-he nun-nah-ne.

     Hah Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah ve-chau-du da-daun-neen ne-steen need-da-hi-ha-vet-deed. Daun ha-nun-naid nun-nah-nin had je-thau-jeen-ne' na-íd-deed. Neeth-na-ah had-du nah-ne-thau-yah had du-je-jeen-ne-au hah-nau nah-áh-nah-vah-an nun-nah-nin da'-daun-ne chau-gu-u Jesous Christos jah-nau-tha-an. Ith-thau-oo.

     Hah Vah-hah-dain Hen ne-sun-nau-neet Ich-jev-va, Váh-nau-dain nau je-thau-je-ne-he Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah, dau-neeth-na-yahn nah-neeth-thau-ne-e dees-see-ne neeth-na-yahn nah-neeth-thau-ne-e det-jau-ne. Neeth-na'yah had-dau je-je wad-dau-hau'-yau. Ne-es-sa-yah had-de-e jah-the-an has-sin-he-nun-ne had-de-na'h-ne hat-nun-dah-neet chaugu-u Jesous Christos jah-nau-tha-an. Ith-thau-oo.

     Vah-náu-dain Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah nun-nah-nin hon-no-it ved-da'h-hah de-gau-nen-ne nah háhs-thet-jáh-ne dah in-nah-woo, hé-the-he nun-nah-nin hah-yoó-hoo de-je-nau-yah. Nees-té he-yah-the'-he hé-ne-thet-jad nah ved-dah-hah he-he-thé-he nun-náh-nin Ved-den Nau-wah-thah-oo ad-náh-ahs ve-chau-then ah-thah-woo ne nee's-he ved-den-nau hen-ne-see-eet ven-nahs-sau chau-gu-hoo Christos ne Jah-nau-tha-an. Ith-thau-oo.

The Ten Commandments

     Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah hah-sin-heet nu-hoó hahn-net-deed-don-nau.

     1. Nah-nau nun-nah-nin-nau d'vah-hah-da-nau He-sun-nau-nau jáh-sa hah-woon.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     2. Hah-na-jeen-ne nees-teen ne-ha-yau nun-na-ith-thau hah-yoo-hoo hin-nah ich-jev-va nau hon-no-it noch-it-dah-oo nau hon-no-it ith-thau-vetc-he-he. Hah-na-jeen jah-na-he jé-dah-woo-nah jev-va-ve-vith-dau-oo hah-nau d'vah-ha'h-deen-nau He-sun-nau-nin-nau d-hoo-aiaud-d-he-he-nau ba-sun-nau nau de-jev-ve-aud-deet was-sau-ne nu-hoo nah-sa-nah-va-id-dau-nau he-da-yau-ne-vin-nau hau-nau-woon-naun-nu na-vich-chau-tha'-id-daun-nau ne du-in-nu ned-dah-ned-deed.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     3. Dú-in-nau n-ne-se-eet va-den-e-e.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     4. Ha'-in-nau du-in-nau ved-den-nes-see ne'-da-duch-us hen-na nees-se-tha-in hen-na-nah-ahs-daun daun ahs-daun ne-dah-duch-us Jev-vah-ne ah-thah nees-deed ich-jev-va nau veed dah-oo nau ha-detc nau hon-no-it hah-tha-au nau ne-di-ya-nu-set-deed ne-sau-dech-us nau ne nees-teed ved-den-ne-he.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     5. Ve-cháu-chu-in ha-sun-nau nau há-in-nau hahv-ah gu-ith-thá, nah-id-dee ve dah-oo Vah-hah-dicht Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah d'vé-na-in.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     6. Hah-na' jé nah-háh-din-na.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     7. Hah-na' jé nah-thet-din-na.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     8. Hah-ná jah ve'-den.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     9. Hah-ná je'-nen-daun na-dau-wau'-thet-din-na.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     10. Hah-na-je' vin-nah-deen hin-nan-nit-ah hid-ahoo Hah na-je vin-nah-deen hin-nan-nit-dah hin-neen nau hon-no-it he-don-nu in nau.
Vah-ha'h-dain jah-óo-nun-ne-ah nau ne-da-he-va-e-ah ahd-ne dú-nenu-hoo hahn-net-déed-don nau.

     Nau jath-de nu ás-sin-eed Vah-hah-dicht Jesous Christos.
     Hen-ná vich-chau-thut Vah-hah-dicht Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah nauch-gú-hu hon-no-it hat-dah hah nau nauch-gú-hu hon-no-it hau-dau-wath-thau-woo nau-nauch-gú-hu hon-no-it hau-gug-gau-e'th-thet-jaut.
     Nu-hu nun-náh ne-dahoo nau ven-nah-sau ne-he-thet-deed nau hu-c-chau-e na'h-as-sau Had-ve-chau'-thau hin-nen-it-da wad-de ne-hay-yau.

     Vah-ha'h-dain jah-wu-nun-na-ah.
     Christos, Jah-wu-nun-na-ah.
     Vah-ha'h-dain jah-wu-nun-na-ah.
     Had-de ve-vith-tha-he-nau.

     Au va-nau'-dain Vah hah-dicht nau je'-thau-je-ne Jev-va-ne-ah-thah ne-ne-da-woo-nah-ne had need-dau-wah-na-an he-dah-he-don-nau-nau hu-den-nah-yau-ne dau-nau hah-vau-na had de-nah-as-daun daun-has-sin-heen hen-ne-nah-as neeth-na-yan nah-ne-thau-heed nau det-jau-ne-he chau-gu nun-nee-woo-na-ahn nau Jah-nah-tha'-he Jesous Christos. Ith-thau-oo.

     Ne-dah-he-va-yah ah Vah-hah-dain nu-hu-nau ve-vith-ha-id-don-nau nau nees-ha-ah had-ve-chau-en has-sin-heen nau nees-ha-ah da-nod-din-nah nah-av-ve hah thá-dah-oou-nah-yah-hah na-nah-as nau-ach-gau-hu dau-chu-oo chau-gú-hoo Jesous Christos jah-nau-tha-an. Ith-thau-oo.

     Ah Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah, ne-stha-e hon-no-it ne-ne-dah-wu-nan hah-wu-nun-nin hin-nen-nit-dah-need nau-nees-sin ad-nah-inu-hah-vah nau ne-ne-dah-ooin-nan hith-thah-oo hah-oon-nun-nin hon-no-it daun nah-sah-wah-vah-hith-the nau hon-no-it daun nah-sah-wah-vah-hith-the nau hon-no-it daun ne-weh-thet-jah-the need-ha-vin nau nah-an-nah-vain chau-gú-hoo Jesous Christos jah-nau-tha-an Ith-thau-oo.

     Vah-nau-dain Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah Ba-sun-nau ith-thau-wah woo-ya Hah dav-vin-nah hoo-ne ven-ne'-nahn ved-dau-hau vah-vin-neeth don-na-an hon-no-it nun-nah-nin nah-ne-thau ve-chau'-du. Ne-vah-ve-neeth-daun-nain de-nees-ha-ahn nau nu-ha-ah-nah-ne-thau ne-vah-ve-neeth-daun-nain deh-jah-ha-ahn d-veen-na-an heed hau oo-ah-oo-u hon-no-it ne-vah-ve-neeth-daun-nain de-nay-yau-ha-an he-the-he Vah-hah-dich Jesous Christos nau nah-thau-oo ne-dah-ooin-nan ad-veen-na-ahn ved-dah-hah ith-thau-oo ne-vah-ve-neeth-daun-nain nah-nees vah-ve-neeth-daun-nain hah-woo jessa hid-de-ne'-daun-nau hau nach-gu-hoo hu-ned-deed ven-ne-nahn ne-hi-yau nun-nah-nin nau jah-ve-chau-ne ads-jeen nun-nah-nin huv-vau-na ads-seen nad-de-chau-gú-hoo Jesous Christos He-nah-yau-ha-an Ith-thau-oo.

     Vah-nau-dain Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah hah Ved-den Nau-wah-thah-oo hau-a-na'hd-tha-yah had-ve-vith-daun-nahn nau hahth-a-dau-vahn daun nees nau-wah-ith nah-sau ha-he-sah-nauk hen-ne-see-eed had va-e daun has-ne-dah-oo-na-an ne-daun-na-ah he-wah-ne-ah Au Vah-hah-dain hah dav-vin-nu-hu-nau ve-vith-ha-id nau jiv-veen-ne-ah heed had nah-in-non-ne has-se thau-va nau jiv-veen-ne-ah hin-ne jahs-sa ve-dah-woo ha-dau hu-na-id-deen he-nah-deed je-thau-jeen-nee. Ith-thau-oo.

     Ved-den Vah-hah-dain Jesous Christos nau ve-chauth-thau Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah nau nauch-gú-hu Ved-den Nau-wah-thah-oo Jev-vah-ne-ah-thah ne-thau-na-ya hon-no-it det-jau-ne-e. Ith-thau-oo.