The People's Book of the Holy Eucharist
Arranged by Bernard Iddings Bell.
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin: Haber Printing for Saint Paul's Cathedral, [1914].

Bernard Iddings Bell (1886-1958) was an American clergyman, academic, and cultural commentator who served as Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, Fond du Lac from 1912 to 1919. This adaptation by him of the Holy Communion from the American 1892 Book of Common Prayer provides a good example of eucharistic practice in the Anglo-Catholic upper Midwest of the United States. It was approved by the Right Reverend Reginald Heber Weller (1857-1935) for use in the Diocese of Fond du Lac, and distributed to other clergy in the Episcopal Church. This text was digitized by Richard Mammana in 2013.



Being the Order from the Book of Common
Prayer, with occasional portions omitted, rubrical
directions simplified, and simple devotions added.









December 29, 1914.

I take pleasure in bringing to your attention and in recommending the booklet called "The Holy Eucharist," prepared by Very Rev. Bernard I. Bell, a copy of which is enclosed herewith. Especially among the congregations of the Diocese of Fond du Lac do I urge its use.

These booklets are not "manuals of devotion," as that term is ordinarily understood, but rather they are designed for use in the church, especially for strangers. It is very difficult for a stranger to follow the office of the Holy Eucharist as it is in the Prayer Book, so full is it of occasional matter and rubrics. A stranger can use this booklet and not only follow the service but also perceive its plan and meaning.

The devotions selected are simple and direct and are not over-lengthy for common use.

The price is as follows:

(In the Diocese of Fond du Lac) One copy, 15 cents. Ten or more copies, 10 cents each.

(Outside the Diocese of Fond du Lac) One copy, 20 cents. Ten or more copies, 15 cents each.

The price is made low in order that they may be used in a congregation in large numbers. Please examine the sample carefully. Send orders to The Printery, St. Paul's Cathedral, Fond du Lac.

Yours in Our Lord,

Bishop of Fond du Lac.


Question. What meanest thou by this word Sacrament?

Answer. I mean an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace given unto us; ordained by Christ Himself as a means whereby we receive the same, and a pledge to assure us thereof

Question. Why was the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper ordained?

Answer. For the continual remembrance of the sacrifice of the death of Chist, and of the benefits which we receive thereby.

Question. What is the outward part or sign of the Lord's Supper?

Answer. Bread and Wine, which the Lord hath commanded to be received.

Question. What is the inward part, or thing signified? Answer. The Body and Blood of Christ, which are spiritually taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper.

Question. What are the benefits whereof we are partakers thereby?

Answer. The strengthening and refreshing of our souls by the Body and Blood of Christ, as our bodies are by the Bread and Wine.

Question. What is required of those who come to the Lord's Supper?

Answer. To examine themselves, whether they repent them truly of their former sins, steadfastly purposing to lead a new life; have a lively faith in God's mercy through Christ, with a thankful remembrance of his death; and be in charity with all men.—Church Catechism.


THIS Booklet is prepared that it may be easy for all who attend the church to follow the service and to take part in it.

The service contained in it is called, variously, the Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper, the Holy Eucharist, and the Mass. It is the service instituted by Our Lord, in He upper chamber in Jerusalem, on the night in which He was betrayed. It is the only act of worship prescribed by Christ Himself. The meaning of the service is explained on the next page.

This booklet is arranged for a late celebration. At an early one, simply omit the directions for hymns, and for singing substitute speaking.

The service proper is on the right hand page. Suggested private devotions are printed on the left hand page.



When you enter the church, kneel (you may make the sign of the Cross) and say:

May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be always acceptable in Thy sight, O Lord, my Strength, and my Redeemer. Amen.

O Lord God, give unto us grace, that with due reverence we may draw near to this Holy Sacrifice, that together with Thy Priest we may offer it unto Thee, first to Thy Honor and Glory; second, in thankful memory of the life and death of Jesus Christ Thy Son Our Lord; third, in thanksgiving for all Thy mercies to us (especially ...); fourth, that Thou mayest give unto us Thy continual help (especially for ...); fifth, for the blessing of all dear to us (especially ...); and sixth for rest and peace to all the blessed dead. Hear us, we beseech Thee, for the sake of Christ Our Lord. Amen.

While waiting for the service to begin, read hymns, psalms, or other portions of the Bible.


As the priest enters, say this prayer for him:

May the Lord look upon thee with favor, forgive all thy sins, pardon thine unworthiness, and make thee an acceptable minister, that thou mayest rightly offer these Holy Mysteries. Amen.




1. A HYMN.

Its number in the Hymnal is posted on the Hymn Board. You Rise and Sing. Meanwhile the Priest makes his preparation, concluding with the Lord's Prayer.




Almighty God, unto whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid; Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy holy Name; through Christ our Lord.





Hear what our Lord Jesus Christ saith.

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets.



Priest and People:

Lord, have mercy upon us.
Christ, have mercy upon us.
Lord, have mercy upon us.



(The priest bids the people to pray, and says a special prayer appointed for whatever day or season it may be. Prayer Book pp. 52-220.)





(The priest reads a portion of one of the Epistles)

(At the end of the Epistle may be sung a Hymn called Sequence.)

As the book is being moved for the Gospel, say:

Send us, O Lord, Thy benediction. The lord be in our hearts, that worthily and rightly we may hear Thy Holy Gospel. Through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

May our minds think the thoughts of the Gospel.
May our mouths speak the words of the Gospel.
May our bodies do the deeds of the Gospel. Amen.


VII. THE GOSPEL. You stand.

The Holy Gospel is written in the —— chapter of ——, beginning at the —— verse.


Glory be to thee, O Lord.

(The priest reads a portion of one of the Gospels. At the end)


Praise be unto thee, O Christ.



Priest and People:

I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible:

  And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God; Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God; Begotten, not made; Being of one substance with the Father; By whom all things were made: Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven;

(Here all kneel or bow low in reverence at the mercy of Our Lord in coming to earth for us:)


(Here all rise again.)

  And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried: And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures: And ascended into heaven. And sitteth on the right hand of the Father: And he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; Whose kingdom shall have no end.
At the end of the Creed it is proper to sign yourself with the sign of the Cross. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, The Lord, and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; Who spake by the Prophets: And I believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church: I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins: And I look for the Resurrection of the dead: And the Life of the world to come. Amen.


(Then the Priest shall declare unto the People what Holy-days, or Fasting-days, are in the week following to be observed; and (if occasion be) shall Notice be given of the Communion, and of the Banns of Matrimony, and other matters to be published.)

(A hymn may here be sung. When it is, the number is posted on the board.)


THE SERMON. (Which may sometimes be omitted)

You stand.

Before the sermon it is proper to sign yourself with the sign of the Cross.

Priest: In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.


Amen. You sit.

(The Priest then preaches the sermon.)


If there be no hymn during the offertory, you may say

We offer unto Thee, O Lord, Bread and Wine by the hands of Thy Priest, that they may become for us the spiritual food of the Body and Blood of Our Saviour, Jesus Christ. We offer unto Thee ourselves, also, O God, that through worship of Thy Son Jesus Christ, in this Blessed Sacrament, we may become strengthened and refreshed, that we may dare bravely to resist sin, rightly to love our brothers, and truly to serve Thee, in thought, word, and deed. Amen.

Also say, when you give an offering

O God, all that is in the Heaven and in the earth is Thine. Accept therefore this, my poor offering, and sanctify it to Thy service. Amen.

If there be still more time, say

O God remember all those who know not Thee, nor this Thy Sacred Banquet. Remove from them all prejudice, enlighten their minds that they may understand and their hearts that they may feel the reality of Thy Son's Presence therein. Bring all Thy wandering children home once more to this Heavenly Feast, wherein all the brothers in earth and Heaven do unite, together with Jesus Christ Thy Son, in mighty sacrifice to Thee. Amen.

(A hymn or anthem is sung, during which the priest puts bread and wine upon the Altar, and, the alms of the people having been collected by lay officials of the congregation, offers them, together with i the bread and wine, to God. The priest may then ceremonially cleanse his hands, that they may be pure for the holy things that are to come.)


Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church militant.

Almighty and everliving God, who by thy holy Apostle hast taught us to make prayers, and supplications, and to give thanks for all men; We humbly beseech thee most mercifully to accept our alms and oblations, and to receive these our prayers, which we offer unto thy Divine Majesty.


(For Unity)

Beseeching thee to inspire continually the Universal Church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord: And grant that all those who do confess thy holy Name may agree in the truth of thy holy Word, and live in unity and godly love.

(For Rulers)

We beseech thee also, so to direct and dispose the hearts of all Christian Rulers, that they may truly and impartially administer justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of thy true religion, and virtue.


(For the Clergy)

Give grace, O heavenly Father, to all Bishops and other Ministers, that they may, both by their life and doctrine, set forth thy true and lively Word, and rightly and duly administer thy holy Sacraments.


(For the Laity)

And to all thy People give thy heavenly grace; and especially to this congregation here present; that, with meek heart and due reverence, they may hear, and receive thy holy Word; truly serving thee in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life.


(For those in trouble)

And we most humbly beseech thee, of thy goodness, O Lord, to comfort and succour all those who, in this transitory life, are in trouble, sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity.


(Remembrance of the Dead)

And we also bless thy holy Name for all thy servants departed this life in thy faith and fear; beseeching thee to give us grace so to follow their good examples, that with them we may be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom.


Grant this, O Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Mediator and Advocate.

People: Amen.




You who do truly and earnestly repent you of your sins, and are in love and charity with your neighbours, and intend to lead a new life, following the commandments of God, and walking from henceforth in his holy ways; Draw near with faith, and take this holy Sacrament to your comfort; and make your humble confession to Almighty God, devoutly kneeling.



Priest and People:

Almighty God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Maker of all things. Judge of all men; We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, Which we, from time to time, most grievously have committed. By thought, word, and deed. Against thy Divine Majesty, Provoking most justly thy wrath and indignation against us. We do earnestly repent. And are heartily sorry for these our misdoings ; The remembrance of them is grievous unto us; The burden of them is intolerable. Have mercy upon us. Have mercy upon us, most merciful Father; For thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ's sake. Forgive us all that is past; And grant that we may ever hereafter serve and please thee in newness of life. To the honour and glory of thy Name; Through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

At the words "pardon and deliver you" in the Absolution, it is proper to sign yourself with the sin of the Cross.



Almighty God, our heavenly Father, who of his great mercy hath promised forgiveness of sins to all those who with hearty repentance and truth faith turn unto him; Have mercy upon you; pardon and deliver you from all your sins; confirm and strengthen you in all goodness; and bring you to everlasting life; through Jesus Christ our Lord.

People: Amen.


Priest: Hear what comfortable words our Saviour Christ saith unto all who truly turn to him.

Come unto me, all ye that travail and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you. St. Matt. xi. 28.

So God loved the word, that he gave his only-begotten son, to the end that all that believe in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

Hear also what Saint Paul saith.

This is a true saying, and worthy of all men to be received, That Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.

Hear also what Saint John saith.

If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the propitiation for our sins.



Lift up your hearts.
We lift them up unto the Lord.
Let us give thanks unto Our Lord God.
It is meet and right so to do.
It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty that we should at all times and in all places give thanks unto thee, O Lord, Holy Father, Almighty, Everlasting God. Therefore, with Angels and Archangels, and with all the company of Heaven, we laud and magnify Thy Holy Name, evermore praising thee and saying:

  Priest and People:
Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are full of Thy Glory. Glory be to Thee, O Lord Most High. Amen.



We do not presume to come to this thy Table, O merciful Lord, trusting in our own righteousness, but in thy manifold and great mercies. We are not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy Table. But thou art the same Lord, whose property is always to have mercy: Grant us therefore, gracious Lord, so to eat the flesh of thy dear Son Jesus Christ, and to drink his blood, that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his body, and our souls washed through his most precious blood, and that we may evermore dwell in him, and he in us.


If it be not sung, you may say just before the Consecration:

Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the Highest!

(Here may be sung the following: "Blessed is He that Cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the Highest.")



All glory be to thee, Almighty God, our heavenly Father, for that thou, of thy tender mercy, didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the Cross for our redemption; who made there (by his one oblation of himself once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world; and did institute, and in his holy Gospel command us to continue, a perpetual memory of that his precious death and sacrifice, until his coming again:

When the Host is lifted, you may say:

Hail, holy Body of Jesus Christ, wherein is His Sacred Presence.

When the Chalice is lifted, you may say:

Hail, holy Body of Jesus, wherein He comes to cheer and bless His children.

For in the night in which he was betrayed, he took Bread; and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, TAKE, EAT, THIS IS MY BODY, WHICH IS GIVEN FOR YOU; DO THIS IN REMEMBRANCE OF ME. Likewise, after supper, he took the Cup; and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, DRINK YE ALL OF THIS; FOR THIS IS MY BLOOD OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, WHICH IS SHED FOR YOU, AND FOR MANY, FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS: DO THIS, AS OFT AS YE SHALL DRINK IT, IN REMEMBRANCE OF ME.
Whenever, during this service, there is a pause, the following hymn-prayers may be said:  


O Food that weary pilgrims love!
O Bread of Angel Hosts above!
O Manna of the saints!
The hungry soul would feed on Thee;
Ne'er may the heart unsolaced be
Which for Thy sweetness faints.

O Fount of love, O cleansing Tide,
Which from the Savior's pierced side
And Sacred Heart dost flow!
Be ours to drink of Thy pure rill,
Which only can our spirits fill,
And all our need bestow.

Lord Jesu, Whom, by power divine
Now hidden 'neath the outward sign,
We worship and adore,
Grant, when the veil away is roll'd,
With open face we may behold
Thyself for evermore. Amen.



Wherefore, O Lord and heavenly Father, according to the institution of thy dearly beloved Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, we, thy humble servants, do celebrate and make here before thy Divine Majesty, with these thy holy gifts, which we now offer unto thee, the memorial thy Son hath commanded us to make; having in remembrance his blessed passion and precious death, his mighty resurrection and glorious ascension.



And we most humbly beseech thee, O merciful Father, to hear us; and, of thy almighty goodness, vouch-safe to bless and sanctify, with thy Word and Holy Spirit, these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine; that we, receiving them according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood.



Humbly I adore Thee, hidden Deity,
Which beneath these symbols art concealed from me:
Wholly in submission Thee my spirit hails,
For in contemplating Thee it wholly fails.

Sight, and touch, and taste may nought of Thee discern,
But the soul that hearkens can the mystery learn:
I believe whatever God's own Son averred,
Nothing can be truer than the Truth's own word.

On the Cross Thy Godhead only was concealed.
Here not e'en Thy Manhood is to sight revealed:
But in both believing and confessing, Lord,
Ask I what the dying thief of Thee implored.

I do not, like Thomas, see Thy Wounds appear,
But with him confess my Lord and God is here.
Grant this faith in me may evermore increase,
And my hope in Thee and love may never cease.

O thrice-blest Memorial of my dying Lord,
This true Bread of Life doth life to man afford;
Grant, O Lord, my soul may ever feed on Thee,
And Thy taste of all things to me sweetest be.

Victim for Thy people, Jesu, Lord and God,
Cleanse me, wretched sinner, in Thy precious Blood;
Blood whereof one drop for humankind outpoured,
Might from all transgression have the world restored.

Jesu, Whom in this great Sacrament I love,
Grant that this life ended, in the Heaven above,
I may ever know Thee, rest within Thy Grace,
See the blissful vision of Thine open Face. Amen.



And we earnestly desire thy fatherly goodness, mercifully to accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving; most humbly beseeching thee to grant that, by the merits and death of thy Son Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we, and all thy whole Church, may obtain remission of our sins, and all other benefits of his passion.



And here we offer and present unto thee, O Lord, our selves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and living sacrifice unto thee; humbly beseeching thee, that we, and all others who shall be partakers of this Holy Communion, may worthily receive the most precious Body and Blood of thy Son Jesus Christ, be filled with thy grace and heavenly benediction, and made one body with him that he may dwell in us and we in him.



And although we are unworthy, through our manifold sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice; yet we beseech thee to accept this our bounden duty and service; not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offenses, through Jesus Christ our Lord; by whom, and with whom, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O Father Almighty, world without end.



If the Agnus Dei be not sung, it may here be said.

IX. THE AGNUS DEI. (may be omitted.)

Priest and People:

O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.
O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.
O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, grant us thy peace.

If you are going to receive, say before leaving your place:

Lord, I believe. Help Thou mine unbelief. Lord, I am not worthy that Thou shouldest come under my roof; but speak the word only, and my soul shall live.

Kneel at the altar rail upright. Hold your head erect, not bowed down. Consume the Sacrament as soon as it is given to you, not holding it longer than is absolutely necessary. After receiving each kind, say "Amen" softly to yourself. It is proper as you say this to sign yourself with the sign of the Cross. Leave the rail as soon as the person next you has received from the Chalice.

When you return to your place, kneel and say:

Thou art with me. Thou art within me. I cannot see Thee; but I know that Thou art here. Thou hast given to me Thyself, that I may have strength to give to Thee myself. Lord Jesus, be with me always. Help me to be holy. Teach me how to love Thee with all my heart and soul and mind and strength, and to love my brothers even as myself. Thanks be unto Thee, O Lord, for Thine unspeakable gift. Amen.

If you are not going to receive the Sacrament, say, while the clergy and people are receiving:

I adore Thee, O Lord, here mystically present in this Blessed Sacrament, with true devotion.

I love Thee, Lord Jesus, who art so loving unto me. I beseech Thee to feed me spiritually, to make me partaker of Thy Strength and Health. Let me from Thy Presence gain renewed courage and vigor, that in the world I may live as becomes a very member of Thyself. Receive, I pray Thee, my intercessions for the living and for the dead, for all Bishops, especially the Bishop of this diocese, for all priests, especially those of this parish, and for all the laity, who in their various labors are seeking to serve Thee. Remember also (here name those for whom you especially desire to pray). Let the offering of this Sacrifice appointed by Thee be unto them, and unto all men everywhere, for the forgiveness of their sins, the strengthening of them in all good works, and the bringing of them to everlasting life.

I adore Thee, O Christ, and I bless Thee, because by Thy Cross and Precious Blood, Thou hast redeemed the world. Amen.

If there be further time, you may Psalm 148, 149, or 150, or the hymns [above].


(During the Agnus Dei the Priest receives the Holy Communion and if there be laypeople, who are to receive, they shall come forward to the altar rail when the priest turns toward them, or, if a bell is used, when the server rings it.)



Priest and People:

Our Father, who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation; But deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.




Almighty and everliving God, we most heartily thank thee, for that thou dost vouchsafe to feed us who have duly received these holy mysteries, with the spiritual food of the most precious Body and Blood of thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ; and dost assure us thereby of thy favour and goodness towards us; and that we are very members incorporate in the mystical body of thy Son, which is the blessed company of all faithful people; and are also heirs through hope of thy everlasting kingdom, by the merits of the most precious death and passion of thy dear Son. And we most humbly beseech thee, O heavenly Father, so to assist us with thy grace, that we may continue in that holy fellowship, and do all such good works as thou hast prepared for us to walk in; through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end.




III. THE GLORIA IN EXCELSIS (or else a Hymn.) You stand.

Priest and People:

Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace, good will towards men. We praise thee, we bless thee, we worship thee, we glorify thee, we give thanks to thee for thy great glory, O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father Almighty.

O Lord, the only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy upon us.

For thou only art holy; thou only art the Lord; thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.


If there be no hymn after the benediction, you may say, while the priest cleanses the holy vessels:

O Sacred Banquet, in which Christ is received, the memory of His Passion renewed, the soul filled full with grace, and the pledge of future glory given unto us. Allelujah. Thou gavest us bread from Heaven; containing in itself all sweetness.

O God, who in this Wonderful Sacrament hast left unto us a memorial of Thy Passion, grant us we beseech Thee so to venerate the Sacred Mysteries of Thy Body and Blood that we may ever perceive within ourselves the fruit of Thy Redemption, who livest, and reignest, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen.

Then, if there be time, read the following, from S. John I:

In the beginning was the Word. And the Word was with God. And the Word was God. The same was, in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was made nothing that was made. In Him was Life, and the Life was the Light of men: and the Light shineth in darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. There was a man, sent from God, whose name was John. The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light that all men might believe. He was not the Light but was sent to bear witness of that Light. That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made by Him, and the world knew Him not. He came unto His own, and His own received Him not. But as many as received Him to them gave He power to become the sons of God: to them that believe on His Name: which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld His glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.



The Peace of God, which passeth all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God, and of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord; And the Blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be amongst you, and remain with you always.




VI. HYMN. (The Number is Posted on the Board.)

(During this hymn the blessed sacrament is consumed, and the clergy and choir leave the church.)

The people usually kneel while the Altar lights are being put out, and say their prayers privately.


As the lights are extinguished, kneel and say

O merciful Lord Jesus Christ, who dost vouchsafe to feed us with that Bread which cometh down from Heaven and giveth life to the souls of men; so strengthen and sustain us, I beseech thee, by these gracious gifts, that we may resist all the temptations of the world, the flesh, and the devil, and continue Thy faithful servants unto our life's end. Who with the Father and the Holy Spirit art One God eternally. Amen.


1. Shape of the Church. Most of our churches are built in the form of a cross. The side arms are called transepts. The upright consists of three parts, raised one above another by steps, called respectively the nave, the choir, and the sanctuary.

2. The Nave. This is the part of the upright of the church wherein the people sit. Nave comes from a Latin word meaning "ship." The name refers to the fact that people within the Church are like souls within an ark, sailing over the angry seas of life.

3. The Choir. This is the part of the church wherein the choristers sit, together with the ministers at all offices except the Holy Eucharist.

4. The Sanctuary. This is the place wherein is the Altar. Sanctuary comes from the Latin, and means "Holy Place." It is reserved for the administration of the Sacraments.

5. Significance of Nave, Choir, and Sanctuary. Progress up the church from door to Altar typifies the journey of the Christian soul. The door means birth, and by it stands the Baptismal Font, wherein we are admitted into Christ. The Nave means Earthly Life. Between it and the Choir is a Screen with a gateway in it. This represents the Gate of Death. The Choir represents Paradise, wherein are the souls of the departed. The Altar Rail represents the General Judgment, which separates Paradise from Heaven. The Sanctuary represents Heaven, wherein is the Throne of God, represented by the Altar.

6. Crosses and Crucifixes. The difference between these is that the Cross is empty, while the Crucifix bears a Corpus or figure of Our Lord. The Cross symbolizes the Triumphant Christ; the Crucifix the Suffering and Sacrificial Christ. A Cross or Crucifix is usually found: (1) upon every Altar, (2) carried at the head of processions, (3) upon the I Screen, if there be one, (4) on the roof of the church I building, (5) on the top of a steeple. It may be used in other places by way of ornamentation. The symbol is to remind us that Christianity is based upon Christ's complete sacrifice of Himself for His brothers, a sacrifice which we are vowed to seek to imitate.

7. Lights. The lights are to remind us that Christ is "The Light of the world." As the light streams from the candles into our eyes, so does the light of Christ's Presence enter into our souls. In most churches two lights are lit at every celebration of the Holy Communion. (When a Bishop celebrates it is common to light two more.) At Choral Eucharists, six lights may be used, as also at all choral offices. Commonly these are said to represent the Trinity and Eternity of God. ("Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be world without end.") Another good reason for lights on God's Table is that for which we put them on our own tables at special meals, namely to make His Board look beautiful.

8. Flowers on the Altars. These remind us that God loves beauty and perfect workmanship, both of which the flowers manifest.

9. Bells. In many churches, bells are rung at certain parts of the service. This is done in order to call the attention of all the people from their wandering thoughts at the most important moments. The bell is rung, when it is used at all, at four places, namely: (1) just before the Sanctus, (2) at the Consecration of the Bread, (3) at the Consecration of the Wine, (4) at the close of the priest's communion.

10. Acolytes or Servers. These are men, and sometimes boys, who assist the priest in the Holy Eucharist. They should be of clean morals, manly conduct, and reverent devotion. Often they are dressed in red cassocks to distinguish them from choristers, who wear black cassocks.

11. The Priest's Eucharistic Vestments. These vestments are those worn by Christ Himself while on earth, with very few changes. Of course His clothes were poor and rough, while the vestments are as beautiful as the congregation can afford. This is because Christ is no longer a poor peasant, but the Lord of Heaven, before whom all angels worship. These vestments are: the alb, a long white robe, the main garment of Christ's time; covering the body from neck to ankles; the amice, which is worn like a collar, but is really the old hat or bonnet wherewith Christ's contemporaries sheltered themselves from the sun; the girdle, or rope, holds the amice in place; the stole, which originally was a muffler or neck-cloth, but which is worn over the shoulders like a yoke; the maniple, worn over the left arm, which originally was the towel or kerchief, which reminds the priest that he who celebrates the Holy Communion is also commissioned to wipe away the tears and bind up the bodily wounds of Christ's brothers; the chasuble, a large round garment, originally a cloak or overcoat, made in one piece with a hole for the head. These vestments are to remind the priest and the people that he who ministers at the altar does it not of his own power, but merely as the agent of the Eternal Christ whose clothing he wears.

12. Incense. When incense is offered, it symbolizes the rising of our hearts' devotion to God. The use of incense is, above all, the piece of ritual sanctioned in the Bible. It was prescribed by Moses for the Temple; it is mentioned approvingly in the prophets; it was to an incense-offering priest that the Angel appeared to tell of the birth of St. John the Baptist; it is prominent in the mystical vision of the Book of Revelation. It was dropped by the Puritans as a religious devotion, who also tore down all pictures, stripped the churches of all beauty. People no longer admire these Puritanical excesses.

Bowings and Genuflections. It is customary to bow one's head in passing the Altar, because it is God's throne; at the speaking or hearing of the Name of Jesus, to show our allegiance to Him; and when a Cross or Crucifix passes one in procession, because it is the Symbol of Christ's complete self-sacrifice. It is customary to genuflect, i. e., sink to one's right knee, when approaching or passing the Blessed Sacrament, for that is the ancient symbol of submission to a Master to whose service one is pledged, and Christ Our Master is there present sacramentally.


[This form, with one or two changes, has long been in use in Christ Church, Chicago.]


Have I caused or encouraged anyone to disbelieve?

Have I allowed the love of another to interfere with my duty to God? To keep me from Church, or from prayers?

Allowed the world, its pleasures or honors, or money to get possession of my heart?

Acted against conscience for the sake of money? To please others? Left right things undone for fear of others?

Have I followed my own will and pleased myself rather than God?

Have I talked much about myself and been conceited? Sought to be noticed or admired?

Have I made use of my opportunities for learning the Faith of the Church?

Have I preferred my own opinion to the teaching of the Church? Refused to accept the Faith of the Church?

Have I been despondent? Doubted God's love? Though God harsh or unjust?


Have I neglected the public worship of GOD? Family Prayers? Morning and Evening Prayers? Grace before meals? Bible reading?

Said my prayers carelessly, thinking of other things?

Have I said or thought it did no good to pray?

Do I make my communions less often than once a month?

If so, why?

Have I received Holy Communion without self-examination?

Do I always receive fasting?

Has anyone died without Baptism or Holy Communion because of my neglect?

Do I go to Church to see or meet people, to show my clothes, or for appearance's sake?

Have I encouraged Christian Science, Theosophy, Spiritualism by my words or presence? Frequented sectarian meetings instead of the Church? Consulted fortune tellers?

Have I put off Baptism or Confirmation?


Have I cursed—used bad language—called bad names?

Have I asked GOD to curse anybody?

Used holy words and names carelessly?

Quoted Holy Scripture irreverently—repeated riddles, jokes founded on Holy Scripture?

Have I been disrespectful to the Clergy—found fault with or unjustly criticized them?

Have I spoken against any ritual or doctrine sanctioned by the Church?

Have I ridiculed the religion of others?

Wilfully kept back something in Confession?

Slurred over a sin in Confession to avoid the full shame of it?

Have I been irreverent in behavior in Church—laughing, talking, eating, not standing or kneeling at the proper time?

Have I broken a solemn promise or religious vow? Told secrets?


Have I profaned Sunday by not attending Divine Service? Why? Would GOD accept this as a valid reason? Kept others from going?

Have I taught my children (and GOD-children) and sent them to Sunday School?

Have I tried to be present every Sunday morning at the Holy Eucharist?

If I could not go to Church have I read the Prayer Book service at home?

Have I worked needlessly on Sunday or caused others to do so? Traveled on Sunday without necessity? Bought or sold on Sunday?

Have I forgotten that it was the Lord's Day—and made it merely a day for feasting, reading unfit literature, card playing, attending the theatre or going on excursions?

Have I abstained from meat and all amusements and entertainments on Fridays, in memory of the Crucifixion?

Have I attended service as often as I could on week days? Why not?

Have I honestly tried to keep Lent?

Have I attended services on the Holy Days?

Have I wasted time in idleness and failed to use my opportunities for doing good?


Have I been disobedient to those set over me—disrespectful to them? Do I deceive them?

Failed in my duty to parents, employer, priest, teacher, brothers, sisters, relatives, GOD-children—to husband, wife? Have I prayed for them? Am I selfish towards them?

Neglected my duty to those under me—scolded or underpaid my employees? Permitted them to go to church?

Have I had my children baptized? Confirmed? Set them a good example? Taught them their Christian duty? Corrected them kindly?

Have I been disrespectful or unkind to the aged, or the sick, the unfortunate? Tried to help them?

Have I talked with others about the faults of the members of my family?

Am I industrious and helpful in every way I can be?


Have I given way to anger—been quick to take offence? Sullen? Irritable?

Have I hated anyone—wished or threatened harm to anyone?

Have I wished that I were dead—talked or thought of committing suicide?

Desired anyone's death through hatred, or for money's sake?

Am I sensitive? Does it anger me to be told my faults?

Have I refused to give in when I knew I was wrong?

Have I stayed away from Church or the Holy Communion because I am angry with someone?

Refused to be friends with or to forgive anyone?

Been impatient with others—struck or slapped anyone in a passion?

Abused anyone by word or deed—provoked others to anger—been a mischief-maker?

Have I been jealous, revengeful and given way to mean, spiteful thoughts of others?

Have I cruelly punished my children?

Have I been cruel to animals—allowed others to be cruel to animals?

Has any human life been destroyed through my sin?

Advised or helped another to prevent or destroy life?


Have I remembered that my body is the Temple of the Holy Ghost?

Have I thought about impure things—done impure acts?

Have I been too familiar with others—allowed others to be free with me? Been immodest?

Have I avoided all companions, talk, songs, pictures, books, etc. which might tempt me?

Have I tempted others to impurity in thought, word or deed?

Frustrated the lawful end of marriage in any way?

Been too fond of dress, spent too much time and money on it?

Am I slothful about rising and going to bed?

Have I been guilty of eating and drinking too much?

Complained about my food?

Used tobacco too much?

Have I neglected cleanliness?

Have I neglected to discipline my body by self-denial, especially on Fridays and in Lent?


Have I stolen money—been dishonest in little things when sent on errands?

Have I given away what did not belong to me?

Received what I knew to be stolen?

Have I neglected to return what I have borrowed?

Have I restored whatever I have gotten dishonestly, or under false pretenses?

Have I been dishonest or tricky in money matters?

Have I cheated—not paid my debts—gambled?

Have I spent more money than I could afford?

Have I robbed God by not giving to the Church, missions, etc.?

Have I neglected to help the poor and sick?

Have I evaded my taxes?

Have I read other people's letters without permission?

Have I been lazy or received pay for work I have not done?

Have I cheated or "copied" in school?

Have I taken credit for what others have done?


Have I told lies, made false excuses, broken my word?

Have I exaggerated, or told only a part of the truth?

Have I acted lies—been deceitful?

Have I allowed others to bear the blame for my fault?

Have I made mischief or injured others by my tongue?

Have I taken pleasure in discussing other people's faults, especially those whom I dislike?

Have I said behind people's backs what I would not say to their faces?

Have I imputed unkind motives to their actions?

Have I acknowledged the lie? Checked the gossip?


Have I been discontented—fretful?

Have I envied others, their talents or possessions, or their prominence?

Do I think more of my misfortunes than of my blessings?

Have I felt pleased at the misfortunes of others?

Am I selfish, covetous and grasping with money?

Am I selfish with my time, comfort, own way, friendships, etc.?

Do I prefer to receive benefits more than to bestow them upon others?

Have I ever wished it were right to do what I knew to be sin?

Am I governed by selfish motives, unworthy of a true follower of CHRIST?

It will probably help you to remember your sins, if you will write them on a slip of paper as you make your examination.

Do not be ashamed or afraid to go to your Priest for advice and help, in case you find difficulty in overcoming your sins. When your body is sick you go to your physician. He is GOD'S Minister, and GOD has given him Power to help you. (Read St. John xx:21-23.)


Acknowledge your sins, saying,—

In the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen.

I CONFESS to GOD Almighty, the FATHER, the SON, and the HOLY GHOST, before the whole company of Heaven, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, of my own most grievous fault. Especially I accuse myself of these sins:

Then confess fully to your loving Lord all the sins you found in your examination.

For these, and all my other sins which I cannot now remember, I am heartily sorry, and firmly purpose amendment. Amen.

Project Canterbury